Spotlight is electric
In the most basic form, the spotlight is the basic circuit. The power source (depending on the spotlight model, which can be AC ​​or DC) is connected to the high-intensity bulb through a switch. When the switch is moved to the "on" position, the mechanism inside the switch completes the circuit and allows current to flow from the power supply through the lamp and back to the power supply ground path. The filament in the bulb prevents the current from passing, and begins to glow when the current forces it to pass. In some very efficient spotlights, current is fed into a small circuit board, which in turn illuminates a set of high-intensity light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to produce light.

Spotlight is reflective
Although electric current makes the light bulb in the spotlight glow, the light bulb alone is not enough to produce a large number of spotlights. To amplify the light generated by the bulb, the recessed area around the bulb is coated with an angled material with high reflectivity. The angle within the material captures and reflects the light emitted by the bulb, thereby amplifying its effect. The reflective area is usually composed of aluminum-plated plastic, and can also redirect light into a stable beam, thereby enhancing the function of the lens. Depending on the size of the spotlight and the reflectivity of the coated area, a single bulb or a small number of LEDs can be amplified to 10,000 lumens or more (125,700 candles).

Spotlight using lens
When a large amount of light is produced by the light bulb and the reflective area of ​​the spotlight, the natural tendency of the light beam is to scatter into a wide unfocused area. Since scattered light waves will produce ineffective spotlights, manufacturers often use special plastic or glass lenses to cover the bulb and reflective areas. Just like the lens of a camera or glasses, the lens on the spotlight directs the light from the light source to a single focus path. Depending on the make and model of the spotlight, the lens may be adjustable, allowing the user to switch from a dimmer that covers a large area to a very bright focused light focused on a small surface.

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